Грижи за кожата при бебета и деца

Posted on април 9, 2019

Кожата на новороденото не е развита като при възрастните. Eпидермисът все още е много по-тънък от този на възрастните и е изключително деликатен. Докато кожата на бебето се развива, тя е изключително чувствителна и всяко одраскване може да я увреди. Кожата също така няма активни себумни жлези, така че може лесно да се изсуши. Това заедно с невъзможността на кожата на новороденото да поддържа балансирано pH ниво може да направи кожата на бебето по-податлива на бактерии. По време на първите месеци от живота си на бебета им е по-трудно да се справят с кожни раздразнения като подсичане и екзема. Перилните препарати,oцветителите и ежедневните аромати могат лесно да раздразнят кожата. Освен това през първите до 8 седмици около 20% от всички бебета развиват акне. Това състояние обикновено се причинява от хормонални промени, а мазните продукти за грижа за бебешката кожа могат да го влошат или удължат. Най-важните функции на епидермиса са редотвратяването на трансепидермална загуба на вода, защитата от микроби и механични вреди. Способността на кожата да запазва влагата си и да минимизира изпаряването се подобрява значително в ранното детство, като достига нормални (за възрастни) нива на около 3-месечна възраст. Именно затова кожата на новороденото е сравнително суха и може да бъде лесно наранена. С увеличаване на възрастта, се увеличава зрелостта на подкожния слой и кожата става по-устойчива на външни влияния. Здравата кожа има повърхностно pH ниво, което е леко киселинно. Това предпазва от навлизането на микроорганизми. Киселинността на повърхността на кожата се активира от киселинните съставки в потта, себума и роговия слой. При раждането си бебетата обикновено имат неутрално или алкално рН на повърхността на кожата от порядъка на 6.2-7.5. Алкално-неутрализиращите способности на кожата на новородените и малките деца обаче са доста ограничени.  След контакт с алкални вещества, кожата се нуждае от по-дълго време, за да  възстанови леко киселинната си физиологична рН стойност. Continue reading

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